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# std.container.binaryheap

This module provides a BinaryHeap adaptor that makes a binary heap out of
any user-provided random-access range.

This module is a submodule of std.container.

Source: std/container/binaryheap.d

License:

Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0.
(See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt).

Authors:

Steven Schveighoffer, Andrei Alexandrescu

- struct BinaryHeap(Store, alias less = "a < b") if (isRandomAccessRange!Store || isRandomAccessRange!(typeof(Store.init[])));
- Implements a binary heap container on top of a given random-access range type (usually T[]) or a random-access container type (usually Array!T). The documentation of BinaryHeap will refer to the underlying range or container as the
*store*of the heap.The binary heap induces structure over the underlying store such that accessing the largest element (by using the front property) is a Ο(1) operation and extracting it (by using the removeFront() method) is done fast in Ο(log n) time. If less is the less-than operator, which is the default option, then BinaryHeap defines a so-called max-heap that optimizes extraction of the*largest*elements. To define a min-heap, instantiate BinaryHeap with "a > b" as its predicate. Simply extracting elements from a BinaryHeap container is tantamount to lazily fetching elements of Store in descending order. Extracting elements from the BinaryHeap to completion leaves the underlying store sorted in ascending order but, again, yields elements in descending order. If Store is a range, the BinaryHeap cannot grow beyond the size of that range. If Store is a container that supports insertBack, the BinaryHeap may grow by adding elements to the container.Examples:Example from "Introduction to Algorithms" Cormen et al, p 146import std.algorithm : equal; int[] a = [ 4, 1, 3, 2, 16, 9, 10, 14, 8, 7 ]; auto h = heapify(a); // largest element assert(h.front == 16); // a has the heap property assert(equal(a, [ 16, 14, 10, 8, 7, 9, 3, 2, 4, 1 ]));

Examples:- this(Store
*s*, size_t*initialSize*= size_t.max); - Converts the store
*s*into a heap. If*initialSize*is specified, only the first*initialSize*elements in*s*are transformed into a heap, after which the heap can grow up to r.length (if Store is a range) or indefinitely (if Store is a container with insertBack). Performs Ο(min(r.length,*initialSize*)) evaluations of less. - void acquire(Store
*s*, size_t*initialSize*= size_t.max); - Takes ownership of a store. After this, manipulating
*s*may make the heap work incorrectly. - void assume(Store
*s*, size_t*initialSize*= size_t.max); - Takes ownership of a store assuming it already was organized as a heap.
- auto release();
- Clears the heap. Returns the portion of the store from 0 up to length, which satisfies the heap property.
- @property bool empty();
- Returns
**true**if the heap is empty,**false**otherwise. - @property BinaryHeap dup();
- @property size_t length();
- Returns the length of the heap.
- @property size_t capacity();
- Returns the capacity of the heap, which is the length of the underlying store (if the store is a range) or the capacity of the underlying store (if the store is a container).
- @property ElementType!Store front();
- Returns a copy of the front of the heap, which is the largest element according to less.
- void clear();
- Clears the heap by detaching it from the underlying store.
- size_t insert(ElementType!Store
*value*); - Inserts
*value*into the store. If the underlying store is a range and length == capacity, throws an exception. - void removeFront();

alias popFront = removeFront; - Removes the largest element from the heap.
- ElementType!Store removeAny();
- Removes the largest element from the heap and returns a copy of it. The element still resides in the heap's store. For performance reasons you may want to use removeFront with heaps of objects that are expensive to copy.
- void replaceFront(ElementType!Store
*value*); - Replaces the largest element in the store with
*value*. - bool conditionalInsert(ElementType!Store
*value*); - If the heap has room to grow, inserts
*value*into the store and returns**true**. Otherwise, if less(*value*, front), calls replaceFront(*value*) and returns again**true**. Otherwise, leaves the heap unaffected and returns**false**. This method is useful in scenarios where the smallest k elements of a set of candidates must be collected.

- this(Store
- BinaryHeap!(Store, less) heapify(alias less = "a < b", Store)(Store
*s*, size_t*initialSize*= size_t.max); - Convenience function that returns a BinaryHeap!Store object initialized with
*s*and*initialSize*.